بررسی ترجیحات مصرف‌کنندگان چای ارگانیک در شهر تهران تحت فرضیة کاهش اریب در روش آزمون انتخاب

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 نویسندة مسئول و دانشیار گروه اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز، ایران.

3 استاد گروه اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز، ایران.

چکیده

لحاظ کردن فرضیه اریب در فرآیند آزمون انتخاب به ‏عنوان یک فرضیه سنتی در ادبیات موضوع مطرح است. اما نحوه به‏ کارگیری روش­های کاهش فرضیه اریب همچنان یک موضوع بحث‏ برانگیز در بین محققان به ‏شمار می ­رود. در مطالعه حاضر، با لحاظ کردن فرضیه اریب، شواهد بیشتری در ارتباط با ترجیحات مصرف­ کنندگان چای ارگانیک در شهر تهران پیش کشیده شد. داده‌ها و اطلاعات مورد نیاز از طریق پیمایش‌های میدانی و تکمیل 405 پرسشنامه به‏ صورت کاملاً تصادفی از مصرف ‌کنندگان منطقه یک شهر تهران در سال 1395 به‏ دست آمد. به‏ منظور بررسی ترجیحات مصرف­کنندگان چای ارگانیک، از روش آزمون انتخاب و مدل لاجیت شرطی برای گروه پایه (بدون لحاظ کردن فرضیه اریب) و دو گروه صحبت مقدماتی و مقدمه صادقانه استفاده شد. نتایج مطاله نشان داد که میانگین تمایل به پرداخت مصرف‏ کنندگان برای ویژگی­ های مورد مطالعه در سه گروه پایه، صحبت مقدماتی و مقدمه صادقانه، به‏ ترتیب، 11608، 27494 و 18641 تومان است، گویای آنکه استفاده از شیوه­ های کاهش فرضیه اریب باعث کاهش اریب و واقعی­ تر شدن تمایل به پرداخت مصرف کنندگان می­ شود. با توجه به بالا بودن تمایل به پرداخت مصرف‏ کنندگان برای ویژگی­ های چای ارگانیک، پیشنهاد می­شود که برای ارتقای سطح سلامت در کشور، اطلاع­رسانی کامل در مورد مزایای چای ارگانیک صورت گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluating the Preferences of Organic Tea Consumers in Tehran Based on the Hypothetical Bias in the Choice Experiment

نویسندگان [English]

  • E. Pishbahar 1
  • H. Mahmoudi 2
  • B. Hayati 3
1 Corresponding Author and Associate Professor, Department of Agricultural Economics, Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran
2 PhD Student in Agricultural Economics, Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran
3 Professor, Department of Agricultural Economics, Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Considering the hypothetical bias in the choice experiment is known as a traditional hypothesis in literature of the subject. But how to apply the methods of reducing the hypothetical bias is still a controversial issue among researchers. Considering the hypothetical bias, this study suggested further evidence regarding the preferences of organic tea consumers in Tehran city of Iran. The data and information needed for this study were obtained through the questionnaires completed randomly by 405 individual consumers in 2016. The choice experiment method and the logit model were used to survey the preferences of organic tea consumers in three groups. The study results showed that for the three different groups of base (without considering the hypothetical bias), cheap talk, and honesty priming, the average amounts of willingness to pay for the attributes were estimated 116080, 274940, and 186410 IR Rials, respectively, indicating that the application of hypothetical bias mitigation techniques would cause a reduction in the bias and more realistic willingness to pay of the consumers. With respect to the consumers’ high willingness to pay for the organic tea characteristics, it was recommended to raise the people’s awareness about the benefits of organic tea, resulting in an increase in demand of the product and the health in community as well.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Kruskal-Wallis test
  • Stated Preference
  • Cheap Talk
  • Conditional Logit
  • Honesty Priming
  • Tehran (City)
  1. Aadland, D. and Caplan, A.J. (2003). Willingness to pay for curbside recycling with detection and mitigation of hypothetical bias. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 85(2): 492-502.
  2. Adamowicz, W., Boxall, P., Williams, M. and Louviere, J. (1998). Stated preference approaches for measuring passive use values: choice experiments and contingent valuation. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 80: 64-75.Ajoudani, Z. (2009). Study of the possibility of developing and promoting organic agriculture in Kermanshah province from the viewpoint of agricultural experts. Master Thesis of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch of Tehran, Iran. (Persian)
  3. Bargh, J. (1990). Auto-motives: preconscious determinants of thought and behavior. In: Higgins, E.T., Sorrentino, R.M. (Eds) Handbook of Motivation and Cognition. New York: Guilford Press, pp. 93-130.
  4. Bargh, J., Gollwitzer, P.M., Lee-Chai, A.Y., Barndollar, K. and Troetschel, R. (2001). The automated will: non-conscious activation and pursuit of behavioral goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81: 1014-1027.
  5. Bello, M. and Abdulai, A. (2016). Impact of ex-ante hypothetical bias mitigation methods on attribute non-attendance in choice experiments. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 98(5): 14-28.
  6. Brown, T.C., Ajzen, I. and Hrubes, D. (2003). Further tests of entreaties to avoid hypothetical bias in referendum contingent valuation. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 46: 353-361.Brummet, R.G., Nayga, R.M. and Wu, X. (2007). On the use of cheap talk in new product valuation. Economics Bulletin, 2(1): 1-9.
  7. Champ, P.A., Moore, R. and Bishop, R.C. (2009). A comparison of approaches to mitigate hypothetical bias. Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, 38: 166-180.
  8. Chartrand, T.L., Huber, J., Shiv, B. and Tanner, R.J. (2008). Non-conscious goals and consumer choice. Journal of Consumer Research, 35: 189-201.
  9. Chowdhury, S., Meenakshi, J., Tomlins, V.K. and Owori, C. (2011). Are consumers in developing countries willing-to-pay more for micronutrient-dense bio fortified foods? Evidence from a field experiment in Uganda. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 93(1): 83-97.
  10. Cramer, J.S. (2003). Logit models from economics and other fields. Cambridge University Press.
  11. Cummings, R.G. and Taylor, L.O. (1999). Unbiased value estimates for environmental goods: a cheap talk design for the contingent valuation method. American Economic Review, 89(3): 649-665.
  12. De-Magistris, T., Gracia, A. and Nayga, R.M. (2013). On the use of honesty priming tasks to mitigate hypothetical bias in choice experiments. American Journal ofAgricultural Economics, 95(5): 1136-1154.
  13. Denver, S. and Dejgaard Jensen, J. (2014). Consumer preferences for organically and locally produced apples. Food Quality and Preference, 31: 129-134.
  14. FAO (2018). Faostat (food and agriculture data). Available at: http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data (Retrieved at 20 Feb. 2018).
  15. Haghjou, M., Hayati, B., Mohammadrezaei, R., Pishbahar, E. and Dashti, Gh. (2010). Factors affecting the willingness to pay a potential consumer price for healthy food products. Journal of Agricultural Science and Sustainable Production, 3(21): 105-117. (Persian)Han, W. and Yang, M. (2014). Organic tea has more health benefit and environmental adaptability than conventional tea. Building Organic Bridges, at the Organic World Congress 2014, 13-15 Oct., Istanbul, Turkey.
  16. Harrison, G.W. (2006). Experimental evidence on alternative environmental valuation methods. Environmental and Resource Economics, 34(1): 62-125.
  17. Hensher, D.A. (2010). Measurement of the valuation of travel time savings. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 35: 71-98.
  18. Jacquemet, N., Jame, A.G., Luchini, S. and Shogren, J.F. (2011). Social psychology and environmental economics: a new look at ex-ante corrections of biases preference evaluation. Environmental and Resource Economics, 48(3): 33-413.
  19. Ladenburg, J. and Olsen, S. (2010). Augmenting short cheap talk scripts with a repeated opt-out reminder in choice experiment surveys. Resource and Energy Economics, 37: 39-63.
  20. Landry, C.E. and List, J.A. (2007). Using ex ante approaches to obtain credible signals for value in contingent markets: evidence from the field. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 89: 420-429.
  21. List, J. A. (2001). Do explicit warnings eliminate the hypothetical bias in elicitation procedures? Evidence from field auctions for sportscards. American Economic Review, 91(5): 1498-1507.
  22. Louviere, J.J., Hensher, D.A. and Swait, J.D. (2000). Stated choice methods: analysis and applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  23. Lusk, J.L. and Schroeder, T.C. (2004). Are choice experiments incentive compatible? A test with quality differentiated beef steaks. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 86(2): 467-482.
  24. McFadden, D. (1973). Conditional logit analysis of qualitative choice behavior. New York: Academic Press.
  25. Mirsalimi, H., Farhadian, H., Kheyri, Sh. and Khosravani, F. (2016). Survey of consumer attitudes toward organic farming. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 13(52): 32-55. (Persian)
  26. Morrison, M. and Brown, T.C. (2009). Testing the effectiveness of certainty scales, cheap talk, and dissonance-minimization in reducing hypothetical bias in contingent valuation studies. Environmental and Resource Economics, 44: 307-326.
  27. Moser, R., Raffaelli, R. and Notaro, S. (2014). Testing hypothetical bias with a real choice experiment using respondents’ own money. European Review of Agricultural Economics, 41(1): 25-46.
  28. Rajabi, A., Shabanali Fami, H. and Poratashi, M. (2012). Investigating components of accepting organic agricultural products from consumer perspectives. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 10(38): 33-43. (Persian)
  29. Ready, R.C., Champ, P.A. and Lawton, J.L. (2010). Using respondent uncertainty to mitigate hypothetical bias in stated choice experiments. Land Economics, 86(2): 363-381.
  30. Sackett, H., Shupp, R. and Tonsor, G. (2016). Differentiating sustainable from organic and local food choices: does information about certification criteria help consumers? International Journal of Food and Agricultural Economics, 4(3): 17-31.
  31. Sandoghi, A., Amini, A. and Yousefi, A. (2015). Measurement of effective factors on the selection of ordinary, healthy and organic cucumbers in Isfahan city using empirical selection method. Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development, 29(2): 139-149. (Persian)
  32. Van Loo, E., Caputo, V., Caputo, R., Nayga, J. and Ricke, S. (2011). Consumers’ willingness to pay for organic chicken breast: evidence from choice experiment. Food Quality and Preference, 22(7): 603-613.
  33. Vietoris, V., Kozelova, D., Mellen, M., Chrenekova, M., Potclan, J., Fikselova, M., Kopkas, P. and Horska, E. (2016). Analysis of consumer preferences at organic food purchase in Romania. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 66(2): 139-146