تأثیر شاخص‌های آزادسازی تجاری درون بخشی کشاورزی بر تخریب محیط زیست در ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری اقتصاد منابع طبیعی و محیط زیست ، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز

2 نویسندة مسئول، استادیار و عضو هیئت علمی گروه اقتصاد، دانشکدة اقتصاد و مدیریت، واحد شیراز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، شیراز، ایران

چکیده

در بخش‏های مختلف اقتصادی، تأثیر آزادسازی تجاری بر وضعیت آلودگی محیط زیست در ایران به یکی از چالش‏ های پیش روی سیاست‏گذاران تبدیل شده است. در مطالعه حاضر، با استفاده از سه شاخص «سطح تجارت بین‌الملل در بخش کشاورزی»، «ادغام تجارت بین‌الملل در بخش کشاورزی» و «درجه باز بودن تجارت در بخش کشاورزی» و در قالب الگوی هم ‏انباشتگی جوهانسن- جوسیلیوس تصحیح خطای برداری (VECM)، به بررسی تأثیر شاخص ‏های آزادسازی تجاری درون‏ بخشی کشاورزی بر تخریب محیط زیست در ایران پرداخته شد. نتایج نشان داد که هر سه شاخص آزادسازی تجاری درون‏ بخشی کشاورزی بر تخریب محیط زیست اثر منفی و معنی دار دارند؛ همچنین، شدت مصرف انرژی در بخش کشاورزی و ارزش افزوده در این بخش باعث افزایش تخریب محیط زیست می ‏شوند. پیشنهاد می شود که دولت با حمایت از تولید محصولات کشاورزی با مزیت نسبی بالا در راستای کاهش تخریب محیط زیست، به کشت فراملی توجه بیشتری داشته باشد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effects of Agricultural Intra-Sectoral Trade Liberalization Indexes on Environmental Degradation in Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Z. Khavand 1
  • Jalil Khodaparast shirazi 2
1 PhD Student of Natural Resources and Environmental Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
2 Corresponding Author, Assistant Professor and Faculty Member, Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Management, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz Branch, Shiraz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Impact of trade liberalization in different economic sectors on environmental pollution in Iran has become one of the challenges faced by policymakers. This study aimed at investigating the effects of agricultural intra-sectoral trade liberalization indexes on environmental degradation in Iran using the indexes of level of international trade (LIT), integration of international trade (IIT) and agriopenness in agriculture sector within Johansen-Juselius cointegration model (VECM) for the period of 1981-2015. The study results showed that all of these three indexes had significantly negative effects on the environmental degradation; also, intensity of energy consumption in agriculture sector and value added in this sector caused an increased environmental degradation. Finally, it was suggested that the government should pay more attention to transnational and extraterritorial cultivation while supporting the agricultural products with high relative advantages and less degradation impact on the environment of the country as well.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Level of International Trade Index
  • Integration of International Trade Index
  • Openness
  • VECM
  • Environment
منابع

  1. Ahmed, K. and Long, W. (2012). Environmental Kuznets curve and Pakistan: an empirical analysis. Procedia Economics and Finance, 1: 4-13.
  2. Al-Amin, C.S., Hamid, A. and Huda, N. (2008). Globalization and environmental degradation: Bangladeshi thinking as a developing nation by 2015. IRBRP Journal, 3(1).
  3. Atici, C. (2012). Carbon emissions, trade liberalization, and the Japan–ASEAN interaction: a group-wise examination. Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, 26(1): 167-178.
  4. Bagwell, K. and Staiger, R.W. (2005). Erratum to multilateral trade negotiations, bilateral opportunism and the rules of GATT/WTO. Journal of International Economics, 67(2): 268-294.
  5. Barghi-Oskouee, M.M., Rasouli-Oskouee, M. and Taher-Oskouee, S. (2016). Impact of globalization on the environment. The Fourth National Conference on Management. Economics and Accounting, 1-9. (Persian)
  6. Da-Rocha, J.M. and Restuccia, D. (2006). The role of agriculture in aggregate business cycles. Review of Economic Dynamics, 9(3): 455-482.
  7. Grossman, G.M. and Krueger, A.B. (1991). Environmental impacts of a North American free trade agreement. Available at https://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/3914.html.
  8. Gumilang, H., Mukhopadhyay, K. and Thomassin, P.J. (2011). Economic and environmental impacts of trade liberalization: the case of Indonesia. Economic Modelling, 28(3): 1030-1041.
  9. Hosseininasab, A. and Paykari, S. (2012). Investigating the impact of economic growth and trade liberalization on environmental pollution. Economic Magazine (Two-Monthly Review of Economic Issues and Policies), 12(9-10): 61-82. (Persian)
  10. Jafaree Samimi, A. and Gholami, Z. (2015). Effect of the globalization of the economy on environmental sustainability, comparison of developing and developed countries. Quarterly Journal of Commerce Research, 75: 1-18. (Persian)
  11. Jalaee, A., Nejati, M. and Javadinia, M. (2016). Impact of global economy on production of Iranian agricultural sector. Agricultural Economics Research, 29: 103-135. (Persian)
  12. Kasman, A. and Duman, Y.S. (2015). CO2 emissions, economic growth, energy consumption, trade and urbanization in new EU member and candidate countries: a panel data analysis. Economic Modelling, 44: 97-103.
  13. Li, T., Wang, Y. and Zhao, D. (2016). Environmental Kuznets curve in China: new evidence from dynamic panel analysis. Energy Policy, 91: 138-147.
  14. Lotfalipour, M.R., Falahi, M. and Esmaeilpour Moghaddam, H. (2014). The impacts of economic growth, trade and financial development on the environmental quality in Iran (on the basis of complex index). J. Econ. Growth. Dev. Res, 4(15): 61-76. (Persian)
  15. Managi, S., Hibiki, A. and Tsurumi, T. (2009). Does trade openness improve environmental quality? Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 58(3): 346-363.
  16. Mirzaee, A., Esfandiari Konari, R., Mahmoudi, R. and Shabanzadeh, M. (2016). Shadow economy and its role in control of environmental damages of MENA countries. Quarterly Journal of Economic Growth and Development Research, 6(24): 103-114. (Persian)
  17. Mohammadi, H. and Tirgari Seraji, M. (2015). Investigation of the relationship between economic growth, trade openness and environmental pollution: a review of selected countries in the Middle East. Iranian Energy Economics, 2(6): 183-207. (Persian)
  18. Nazari, R., Mahdavi Adeli, M.H. and Dadgari, Y. (2015). Investigation of factors influencing environmental pollution in Iran during 1975-2014. Qurterly Journal of Economic Growth, 21: 47-60. (Persian)
  19. Nofersti, M. (1999). Unit root and co-integration in econometrics. Rasa Institute of Cultural Services. Fourth Edition, Tehran. (Persian)
  20. Ozturk, I. and Acaravci, A. (2013). The long-run and causal analysis of energy, growth, openness and financial development on carbon emissions in Turkey. Energy Economics, 36: 262-267.
  21. Salem, A. and Yousefpour, M. (2012). The study of the effect of trade liberalization in developing countries. Journal of Economic Issues and Policies, 1: 93-104. (Persian)
  22. Souri, Q. (2012). Econometric associated with application of Eviews. Tehran: Cultural Studies and Science Publications of Noor, Fourth Edition.
  23. Torabi, T., Khajoueepour, A., Tarighi, S. and Pakravan, M.R. (2015). -Impacts of energy consumption, economic growth and foreign trade on greenhouse gas emissions in Iran. Journal of Economic Modeling, 9(1): 63-84. (Persian)
  24. Ufkes, F.M. (1993). Trade liberalization, agro-food politics and the globalization of agriculture. Political Geography, 12(3): 215-231.
  25. Zoraki, S.H., Motameni.M  and Fereydoni, M (2017).Trade Liberalization and agricultrul performance  application of intra-sectoral and general indicators of international trade. Journal of Agricultural Economics Research, 8(1): 129-159. (Persian)