مقایسه سیاست‏های کاهش برداشت آب و افزایش راندمان آبیاری: مطالعه موردی استان خراسان رضوی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه تحقیقات اقتصادی، اجتماعی و ترویج کشاورزی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان خراسان رضوی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، مشهد

2 استادیارگروه اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشکدة کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل

3 استاد گروه اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشکدة کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

4 استادیار گروه اقتصاد کشاورزی،، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل،

5 استادیار گروه تحقیقات اقتصادی، اجتماعی و ترویج کشاورزی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان خراسان رضوی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، مشهد، ایران

چکیده

به منظور مقایسه تأثیر سیاست کاهش برداشت آب از منابع آب زیرزمینی و سیاست افزایش راندمان آبیاری بر روی کسری مخازن آب‌های زیرزمینی، میزان تولید، خالص واردات، خالص منافع اجتماعی و درآمد کشاورزان در استان خراسان رضوی، پنج شهرستان شامل: مشهد، سبزوار، نیشابور، تربت‌جام و تربت‌حیدریه انتخاب و تأثیر این سیاست‏ ها با استفاده از نوعی مدل برنامه‌ریزی ریاضی مثبت (PMP_GME) بررسی گردید. بررسی تأثیر کاهش برداشت آب نشان داد که این سیاست‌ اگرچه می‌تواند باعث ایجاد تعادل در برداشت آب گردد و مصرف انرژی را تا 25 درصد کاهش دهد اما موجب کاهش تولید محصولات مهمی مانند گندم و افزایش هزینه‌های اجتماعی بخصوص کاهش درآمد کشاورزان و افزایش واردات می‏شود. به‌طوری که هزینه‌های اجتماعی را بین 20 تا 43 درصد افزایش داده و هزینه هر متر مکعب آب صرفه‌جویی شده بین 4540 تا 6360 ریال خواهد بود. جایگزینی سامانه‌های جدید بجای قدیمی و افزایش راندمان آبیاری در حد پتانسیل بدون افزایش سطح زیر کشت، کسری مخزن را 94 درصد کاهش می‌دهد. با وجودی که بستن چاه‌های غیرمجاز از الزامات قانونی است اما اجرای آن نمی‌تواند موجب ایجاد تعادل در برداشت شود. جهت کسب نتیجه مطلوب لازم است تا ضمن بستن چاه‌های غیرمجاز نسبت به کاهش تدریجی پروانه چاه‌های مجاز اقدام نموده و با اعطای تسهیلات و خدمات مشاوره‌ای کشاورزان را در جهت افزایش راندمان یاری نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparing the Policies of Water Extraction Reduction and Irrigation Efficiency Improvement: A Case Study of Razavi Khorasan Province of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sh. Zare 1
  • H. Mohammadi 2
  • M. Sabouhi 3
  • M. Ahmadpour 4
  • S. A. Mohaddes Hoseini 5
1 Corresponding Author and Assistant Professor, Agricultural Research, Educatin and Natural Resources Center of Razavi Khorasan Province, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Mashhad. Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol. Iran
3 Professor, Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Iran (
4 Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol. Iran
5 Assistant Professor, Agricultural Research, Education and Natural Resources Center of Razavi Khorasan Province, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Mashhad. Iran.
چکیده [English]

This study aimed at comparing the effects of the policies of ‘reducing the water extraction from groundwater resources’ and ‘increasing the irrigation efficiency. For this purpose, five counties including Mashhad, Sabzevar, Neyshabour, Torbat-e Jam and Torbat-e Heydarieh were selected in Razavi Khorasan province of Iran. The effects of these policies on the deficit of groundwater reservoirs, production, net imports, net social benefits and farmers' income during 2012-2013 were evaluated using a Positive Mathematical Programming model with Generalized Maximum Entropy (PMP-GME). The required information was collected using the questionnaires as well as the statistics of concerned organizations. The study results showed that although the policy of reducing the water extraction could balance the water extraction and reduce energy consumption by up to 25 percent, it would reduce the production of important crops such as wheat and increase social costs (by 20-43 percent) and particularly, reduce farm incomes and increase imports; in addition, the cost of each cubic meter of saved water would be about 4540 to 6360 IR rials; and replacing old systems by new ones at the potential level without increasing the area under cultivation would reduce the reservoir deficits by 94 percent. Although the closure of unauthorized wells is a legal requirement, its implementation alone cannot create balance in the water extraction. In order to achieve the desired result, it is also necessary to limit the licenses of authorized wells gradually. In addition, bank loans and advisory services will help the farmers to increase their irrigation efficiency. The policy of reducing the water extraction will also prevent the farmers to add area under cultivation by using water saved arising from increased irrigation efficiency.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Unauthorized Wells
  • Extraction Reduction Policy
  • Reservoir Deficits
  • Irrigation efficiency
  • Social Costs
  • Razavi Khorasan (province)
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