ارزیابی پایداری سیاست‌های قیمت‌گذاری آب کشاورزی با استفاده از شاخص ترکیبی: مطالعه موردی استان قزوین

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران، ایران.

2 استاد گروه اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران، ایران

چکیده

یکی از وظایف دشوار سیاست‌گذاران انتخاب بین مجموعه سناریوهایی است که برای دریافت تعرفه آب در اجرای سیاست قیمت‌گذاری آب کشاورزی، از لحاظ اجرایی و قانونی امکان‏پذیر باشند. هدف تحقیق حاضر بررسی نتایج بالقوه ابزارهای مختلف قیمت‌گذاری آب (هکتاری، حجمی و تعرفه دوقسمتی) و اثرات آنها بر پایداری اراضی آبی با در نظر گرفتن ابعاد اقتصادی، اجتماعی و زیست‌محیطی بود. بدین منظور، با استفاده از روش برنامه‌ریزی ریاضی اثباتی، رفتار کشاورزان در مواجهه با ابزارهای مختلف قیمت‌گذاری آب کشاورزی شبیه‌سازی شد و محاسبة شاخص ترکیبی برای اندازه‏گیری پایداری اجرای هر ابزار قیمت‌گذاری به کمک روش تحلیل سلسله‏مراتبی صورت گرفت. داده‌های مورد نیاز از طریق نمونه‏گیری خوشه‌ای دومرحله‌ای با تکمیل 120 پرسشنامه از کشاورزان زیر پوشش شبکه آبیاری دشت قزوین و همچنین، با بهره‏گیری از نظرات و تجارب کارشناسی و داده‌های اسنادی جمع‏آوری شد. نتایج نشان داد که اجرای ابزارهای سیاست قیمت‌گذاری مورد بررسی دارای اثرات منفی بر شاخص‌های پایداری اقتصادی (سودآوری) و اجتماعی (اشتغال) است و تنها بر شاخص‏های زیست‌محیطی تأثیر مثبت دارد؛ مصرف آب در روش قیمت‌گذاری هکتاری افزایش و در روش‌های حجمی و تعرفه دوقسمتی کاهش می‏یابد؛ همچنین، در روش قیمت‌گذاری تعرفه دوقسمتی، شاخص کل پایداری از سایر سناریوهای مورد بررسی بالاتر بوده، که بیانگر کارآیی این روش برای رسیدن به پایداری است و به بیشترین کاهش مصرف آب می‌انجامد. از این‏رو، اجرای سیاست قیمت‏گذاری تعرفه دوقسمتی و نیز اتخاذ سیاست‏های جایگزین در راستای پایداری کامل و جبران اثرات منفی این سیاست پیشنهاد شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluating the Sustainability of Agricultural Water Pricing Policies using Composite Indicator: A Case Study of Qazvin Province of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • P. Nasiri 1
  • S. Yazdani 2
  • R. Moghaddasi 3
1 PhD Student in Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

One of the most difficult duties for public decision-makers is to select a practical and legal instrument to receive water tariffs in the agricultural water pricing policies. This study aimed at analyzing the potential consequences of different instruments for irrigation water pricing (area, volumetric and two-part tariff) and their effects on the sustainability of irrigated lands with respect to economic, social and environmental impacts. For this purpose, farmers’ behavior in response to pricing instruments was simulated through positive mathematical programming and the composite indicators were calculated for sustainability measurement of different instruments in these irrigation water pricing policies using Analytic Hierarchical Process (AHP). The required data were collected in two-stage cluster sampling by 120 questionnaires completed from farmers under the irrigation network of Qazvin Plain in Iran as well as opinions and experiences of experts and documentary data. The results showed that the implementation of the studied irrigation water pricing policy instruments had negative impacts on economic sustainability indicator (i.e. profitability) and social sustainability indicator (i.e. employment) and a positive impact only on environmental sustainability indicators; and water consumption increased in area pricing and decreased in volumetric and two-part tariff pricing. In addition, the overall sustainability index in two-part tariff was higher than other water pricing instruments. Therefore, a two-part tariff pricing policy and adoption of alternative policies to achieve complete sustainability and compensate for the negative effects of this pricing policy were recommended.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • indicators
  • sustainability
  • Irrigation Water Pricing Instruments
  • Positive Mathematical Programming
  • Qazvin (Province)
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