عوامل مؤثر بر امنیت آب کشاورزی در منطقه رامجرد

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‏ آموختة کارشناسی ارشد اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران

2 استاد گروه اقتصاد کشاوزی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران

3 دانشجوی دکتری اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران.

چکیده

امنیت آب، بنا به تعریف، عبارت است از دسترسی مادی و اقتصادی خانوار­های روستایی به مقادیر کافی و قابل اطمینان آب برای رفع نیاز­های کشاورزی خود و همچنین، توانایی دفاع از حقوق خود در برابر مسئولان ذی‏ربط. در راستای تغییر الگوی بارش و بارش‌های نامنظم و خشکسالی­ های اخیر در کشور، مدیریت بهتر منابع آب و شناخت مؤلفه ­ها و روابط بین آنها از اهمیت زیادی برخوردار است. در مطالعه حاضر، برای اندازه­ گیری و تعیین عوامل مؤثر بر امنیت آب، داده ­های مقطعی مربوط به 180 کشاورز در منطقه رامجرد به روش نمونه­ گیری تصادفی از طریق پرسشنامه جمع‏ آوری شد. شاخص امنیت آب به ‏صورت ترکیبی از در دسترس بودن، اطمینان، کفایت، توانایی پرداخت کشاورز و تمایل به پرداخت و مسائل حقوقی (کشمکش بر سر آب و نحوه حل مسئله) آب تعریف و با استفاده از روش تجزیه ‏و تحلیل مؤلفه ­های اساسی اندازه­ گیری شد. بر اساس نتایج مطالعه، مزارعی که از منبع آب تلفیقی استفاده می‌کنند، از امنیت آب بالاتری برخوردارند؛ همچنین، در شرایط فعلی منطقه، برای 41 درصد مزارع (به‏ ویژه مزارع واقع در پایین دست سد) آب کافی وجود ندارد. نتایج برآورد روش حداقل مربعات معمولی نیز نشان داد که فاصله از سد، موقعیت قرارگیری زمین و ریزش چاه دارای اثر منفی و نوع کانال و شرکت در کلاس­های آموزشی اثر مثبت بر امنیت آب در منطقه دارند. با آموزش کشاورزان در زمینه مشارکت در تعمیر و نگهداری سامانه ‏های آبیاری، صرفه­ جویی در مصرف آب و استفاده از فناوری های نوین آبیاری همراه با توجه بیشتر مسئولان ذی‏ربط برای رسیدگی به مشکلات آب‏رسانی و وجود یک تشکل تخصصی برای بازرسی در توزیع و انتقال آب، می‏توان انتظار داشت که دستیابی به هدف امنیت آب میسر شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Factors Affecting Agricultural Water Security in Ramjerd District

نویسندگان [English]

  • Z. Davoodi 1
  • M. Bakhshoodeh 2
  • H. Azarm 3
1 MSc. Graduate in Agricultural Economics, University of Shiraz, Shiraz, Iran.
2 Professor, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Shiraz, Shiraz, Iran
3 PhD Student in Agricultural Economics, University of Shiraz, Shiraz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Water security is defined as the physical and economic access of rural households to sufficient and reliable amounts of water to meet their agricultural needs, as well as their ability to defend their rights before the relevant authorities. Due to the changing pattern of rainfall and irregular rainfall and recent droughts in the country, better management of water resources and recognition of components and relationships between them is of great importance. In this study, to measure and determine the effective factors of water security, cross-sectional data related to 180 farmers in Ramjard region were collected by random sampling method through a questionnaire. The water security index was defined as the mixture of water availability, water assurance, water adequacy, ability to pay, willingness to pay, and legal issues (water conflict and problem solving procedure) and was measured using the Principal Components Analysis (PCA). The results showed farms that use integrated water resources have higher water security. The results of estimation of ordinary least squares method also showed that the variables of distance from the dam, the position of the land and the downfall well have negative effects and the type of channel, literacy level and training classes have positive effects on water security. It is expected that training farmers to repair and maintain irrigation systems, saving water and use of modern irrigation technology accompanying with further attention of the local authorities to address water supply problems and to inspect distribution and transmission of water may achieve the objective of water security.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • : Water security
  • Combined water
  • Principal component analysis
  • Ordinary least squares method
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