ارزیابی اثر سطوح درآمدی بر امنیت غذایی خانوارها در استان تهران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 نویسنده مسئول و استادیار مؤسسه پژوهش‌های برنامه‌ریزی، اقتصاد کشاورزی و توسعه روستایی، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار مؤسسه پژوهش‌های برنامه‌ریزی، اقتصاد کشاورزی و توسعة روستایی، تهران، ایران.

3 استادیار دانشکدة علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران.

چکیده

بر اساس گزارش­ های وزارت بهداشت ایران، وضعیت ناامنی غذایی در استان تهران جدی است و بخش قابل‌توجهی از جمعیت استان با کمبود مواد مغذی در سبد غذایی خود مواجه ‏اند؛ این مسئله سبب شده تا ابتلا به انواع بیماری‌ها در میان خانوارهای تهرانی افزایش یابد. در این راستا، اگرچه با تصمیم کارگروه سلامت و امنیت غذایی و مشارکت دستگاه‌های مختلف اجرایی، به ‏ویژه طی دهه ­های هشتاد و نود خورشیدی، برنامه‌های گوناگون برای ارتقای سطح امنیت غذایی خانوارها در استان تهران انجام گرفته، اما شیوع نارسایی­ ها و بیماری­ های مختلف ممکن است ناشی از الگوی نامطلوب و ناامنی غذایی باشد. از آنجا که تأمین سلامت و امنیت غذایی از اهداف راهبردی سند چشم‌انداز بیست ‏ساله کشور است، در مطالعه حاضر، ابتدا بر اساس طبقه‌بندی گروه کالایی مرکز آمار ایران و با استفاده از ماتریس عملکرد تغذی ه­ای، الگوی مصرف مواد غذایی در دهک ‏های مختلف درآمدی استان تهران شناسایی شد و پس از محاسبه شاخص امنیت غذایی برای این دهک­ ها، بررسی اثر سطوح درآمدی بر امنیت غذایی خانوارها با بهره ‏گیری از الگوی لاجیت صورت گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که سبد غذایی دهک‌های میانی و بالای درآمدی نسبت به دهک‌های پایین جامعه ارزشمندتر و متنوع‌تر بوده و مصرف غلات و چربی در میان آنها کمتر است؛ در مقابل، این دهک ‏ها حبوبات، قند، شکر و شیرینی، گوشت، میوه تازه، شیر، لبنیات و تخم‌مرغ، خشکبار و نوشیدنی و غذاهای آماده بیشتری مصرف می‌کنند. بر اساس یافته ‏های پژوهش، متغیرهای عضویت در سه دهک بالای درآمدی، سن سرپرست خانوار، محل سکونت، زیربنای منزل، اشتغال سرپرست خانوار، درآمد خانوار و تنوع غذایی بر امنیت غذایی خانوارها اثر مثبت و معنی‌دار و متغیرهای عضویت در سه دهک پایین درآمدی، جنسیت سرپرست خانوار، محل سکونت، بعد خانوار و ساعت کار سرپرست خانوار بر امنیت غذایی خانوارها اثر منفی و معنی‌دار دارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessing the Effect of Income Levels on Food Security of Households in Tehran Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Shabanzadeh-Khoshrody 1
  • E. Javdan 2
  • R. Esfanjari Kenari 3
1 Corresponding Author and Assistant Professor of Agricultural Planning, Economics and Rural Development Research Institute (APERDRI), Tehran, Iran
2 Assistant Professor of Agricultural Planning, Economics and Rural Development Research Institute (APERDRI), Tehran, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran.
چکیده [English]

According to reports from the Iranian Ministry of Health, the food insecurity situation in Tehran province is serious and a significant part of the province's population is facing a lack of nutrients in the food basket; this has led to an increase in the incidence of various diseases among Tehranian households. In this regard, although with the decision of the Working Group on Health and Food Security and the participation of various executive bodies, especially during 2000s and 2010s, various programs have been carried out to improve food security in Tehran province, but the spread of various deficiencies and diseases in the province is likely to be as a result of an unfavorable pattern and food insecurity. Since ensuring health and food security is one of the strategic goals of the 20-year Iran Development Perspective Document, in this study, based on the classification of the commodity groups of the Statistical Center of Iran (SCI) and using the nutritional performance matrix, the food consumption patterns were initially identified in different income deciles of Tehran province; then, following the calculation of food security index for these deciles, the effect of income levels on food security of the households was investigated using the logit model. The results showed that the middle and upper income deciles had more valuable and diverse food baskets than the lower deciles of the society and the consumption of grains and fats among them was lower and in return, they had a higher consumption of legumes, sugar and sweets, meat, fresh fruits, milk, dairy and eggs, nuts, beverages and ready food. Based on the study findings, the variables of membership in the top three income deciles, age of household head, place of residence, size of home, employment of  household head, household income and food diversity had a significantly positive effect on the household food security and the variables of membership in the bottom three income deciles,  gender of household head, place of residence, household size and working hours of the household head had a significantly negative effect on the food security of households.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Income Deciles
  • Food Security
  • Logit Model
  • Tehran (Province)
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