کاهش رفاه اجتماعی ناشی از افت سطح آب‌های زیرزمینی (مطالعه موردی گندم‌کاران دشت ارزوئیه)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته دکتری اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان

2 دانشیار گروه اقتصاد کشاورزی دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان

3 استاد گروه اقتصاد کشاورزی دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان

4 استادیارگروه اقتصاد کشاورزی دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان

5 استادیار گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان

چکیده

برداشت بیش از حد از منابع آب زیرزمینی در چند دهه اخیر منجر به اثرات جانبی منفی فراوانی شده است که یکی از پیامدهای آن کاهش رفاه کشاورزان است. در مطالعه حاضر، برای بررسی اثر افت سطح آب زیرزمینی بر رفاه کشاورزان، ابتدا تابع تولید گندم با استفاده از الگوی درجه دوم تعمیم‌یافته برآورد شد و سپس تولید نهایی هریک از نهاده‌ها و از جمله نهاده آب محاسبه گردید. در ادامه، با برآورد تابع هزینه استخراج، تابع رفاه ناشی از کاهش سطح آب محاسبه شد. در نهایت، با استفاده از قضیه پوش و مشتق‌گیری از تابع رفاه نسبت به سطح آب زیرزمینی، تغییرات رفاهی ناشی از افت سطح آب اندازه‌گیری شد. نتایج مطالعه حاضر نشان داد که به ازای یک متر کاهش سطح آب زیرزمینی در اثر برداشت‌های بی‌رویه، رفاه کشاورزان حدود 5/12 میلیون تومان کاهش می‌یابد و کل کاهش رفاه دشت ارزوئیه ناشی از کسری مخزن، رقم قابل توجه 9/12 میلیارد تومان است. همچنین رقم کاهش رفاه به ازای هر مترمکعب آب برابر با 97/20 تومان می‌باشد. با توجه به نتایج، دلیل کاهش رفاه کشاورزان، مصرف بیش از حد منابع آب زیرزمینی است بنابراین باید با سیاست‌هایی نظیر خاموشی اجباری موتورپمپ‌ها، کاهش سطح زیرکشت، تعیین الگوی کشت، فرهنگ‌سازی مصرف و افزایش مشارکت کشاورزان در مدیریت منابع زیرزمینی، از برداشت بیش از حد منابع آب زیرزمینی جلوگیری نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Social Welfare Decrease Due to the Drop in Groundwater Level (Case Study of Wheat Farmers in Orzuiyeh Plain)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mostafa Baniasadi 1
  • M.R. Zare Mehrjordi 2
  • H. Mehrabi Boshrababd 3
  • H.R. Mirzaei 4
  • A. Rezaei Estakhrooye 5
1 Assistant Professor of Agricultural Economics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
2 Associate Professor of Agricultural Economics, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
3 Professor of Agricultural Economics, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
4 Assistant Professor of Agricultural Economics, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
5 Assistant Professor of Water Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
چکیده [English]

Excessive withdrawal of groundwater resources in recent decades has led to many negative externalities that one of its consequences is decreased welfare of farmers. In the present study, to survey the effect of the declined groundwater level on the welfare of farmers, first, wheat production function was estimated using generalized quadratic function and then marginal production of each input, including water input, was calculated. Then, the welfare function caused by reduced water level was calculated by estimating extraction cost function. Finally, using the envelop theorem and differentiation of welfare function with respect to groundwater levels, welfare changes due to water level decline was measured. The results showed that for every one meter groundwater level decline due to excessive withdrawals, welfare of farmers reduces 124546820 Rials and the total decreased welfare caused by the Orzuiyeh plain reservoir deficit is 129 billion Rials which is considerable. In addition, reduction of welfare per cubic meter of water is equal to 209.7 Rials. According to the results, reduced welfare of farmers is due to excessive consumption of groundwater resources which must be prevented by taking policies such as forced shutdown of motor pumps, reducing the acreage, determination of cropping pattern, culture of consumption, and increasing the farmer participation in the management of natural resources.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Externalities
  • Farmer Welfare
  • Production Function
  • Groundwater
  1. Acharya, G. (2000). Special issue the value of wetland: landscape and institutional perspectives approaches to valuing the hidden hydrological services of wetland ecosystems. Ecological Economics, 35: 63–74.
  2. Acharya, G. and Barbier, E. (2000). Valuing groundwater recharge through agricultural production in the Hadejia-Nguru wetlands in northern Nigeria. Agricultural Economics, 22: 247–259.
  3. Amirnejad, H. and Ataie Solute, K. (2011). Economic valuation of environmental resources. Sari: Avaye Masih Publication. (Persian)
  4. Bagheri, A. and Hosseini, S.A. (2011). A system dynamics approach to assess water resources development scheme in the Mashhad plain, Iran, versus sustainability. Proceedings of the 4th International Perspective on Water Resources & the Environment (IPWE), January 2011, Singapore.
  5. Bagheri, M. and Moazzi, F. (2013). Investigation of externalities of groundwater overexploitation on pistachio market of Iran. Agricultural Economics Research, 5(4): 161-184. (Persian)
  6. Chambers, R.G. (1988). Applied production analysis: A dual approach. Cambridge University Press.
  7. Cochran, W.G. (1963). Sampling techniques. 2nd Fd. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
  8. Dehghani, M., Valadan Zoej, M.J., Entezam, I., Mansourian, A. and Saatchi, S. (2009). InSAR monitoring of progressive land subsidence in Neyshabour, Northeast Iran. Geophysical Journal International, 178(1): 47–56.
  9. Doll, P., Muller Schmied, H., Schuh, C., Portmann, FT. and Eicker. A. (2014). Global-scale assessment of groundwater depletion and related groundwater abstractions: combining hydrological modeling with information from well observations and GRACE satellites. Water Resources Research, 50(7): 5698–5720.
  10. Domenico, P., Anderson, D.V. and Case, C. (1968). Optimal groundwater mining. Water Resource Research, 4(2): 247-255.
  11. Fathi, F. and Zibaee, M. (2011). Loss of social welfare due to overexploitation of groundwater in Firozabad plain. Journal of Economic and Agricultural Development, 25(1): 10-19. (Persian)
  12. Foltz, R. (2002). Iran’s water crisis: cultural, political, and ethical dimensions. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 15(4): 357–380.
  13. Forootan, E., Rietbroeka, R., Kuschea, J., Sharifib, M.A., Awangec, J.L., Schmidtd, M., Omondie, P. and Famigliettif, J. (2014). Separation of large scale water storage patterns over Iran using GRACE, altimetry and hydrological data. Remote Sensing of Environment,140: 580–595.
  14. Freeman, A.M. (1993). The measurement of environmental and resource values: theory and methods. Resources for the Future, Washington DC.
  15. Gayarti, A. and Barbier, E. (2008). Valuing groundwater recharge through agricultural production in the Hadejia-Nguru Westland in northern Nigeria. Agricultural Economics, 22: 247-259.
  16. Gleeson, T., Wada, Y., Bierkens, M.F.P. and Van Beek, L.P.H. (2012). Water balance of global aquifers revealed by groundwater footprint. Nature, 488: 197–200.
  17. Hojjati, M.H. and Boustani, F. (2010). An assessment of groundwater crisis in Iran, case study: Fars province. World Academy of Science. International Journal of Social, Behavioral, Educational, Economic, Business and Industrial Engineering, 4(10): 427–431.
  18. Hossein Zad, J. and Salami, H. (2004). Production function selection for economic valuation of agricultural water, case study of wheat production. Agricultural Economic and Development, 12(48): 53-84. (Persian)
  19. Izady, A., Davary, K., Alizadeh, A., Ghahraman, B., Sadeghi, M. and Moghaddamnia, A. (2012). Application of “panel-data” modeling to predict groundwater levels in the Neishaboor Plain, Iran. Hydrogeology Journal, 20(3): 435–447.
  20. Joodaki, G., Wahr, J. and Swenson, S. (2014). Estimating the human contribution to groundwater depletion in the Middle East, from GRACE data, land surface models, and well observations. Water Resources Research, 50: 2679–2692.
  21. Judge, G., Hill, R. C., Grifith, W. E., Lutkepphi, H. and Lee, T. C. (1988). Introduction to the theory and practice of Econometrics. 2nd Edition, New York: Wiley.
  22. Kerman Regional Water Supply Office. (2012). Office of statistics and information.
  23. Kerman Regional Water Supply Office. (2014). Report on extension of banning groundwater resources extraction in Orzooiyeh plain. Kerman: Ministry of Power. (Persian)
  24. Khalilian, S. and Zare Mehrjerdi, M. R. (2005). Groundwater valuation in agricultural exploitations, case study: Wheat farmers of Kerman County. Agricultural Economic and Development, 13(51): 1-14. (Persian)
  25. Kulshreshtha, S.N. and Brown, W.J. (1990). The economic value of water for irrigation: a historical perspective. Canadian Water Resource, 15: 201-215.
  26. Lindgren A. (1999). The value of water: a study of the Stampriet Aquifer in Namibia.Master Thesis, Umea University.Department of Economics.
  27. Madani, K. (2014). Water management in Iran: what is causing the looming crisis? Journal of Environmental Studies and Science, 4: 315–328.
  28. Motagh, M., Djamour, Y., Walter, T.R., Wetzel, H-U., Zschau, J. and Arabi, S. (2007). Land subsidence in Mashhad Valley, northeast Iran: results from InSAR, levelling and GPS. Geophysical Journal International, 168(2): 518–526.
  29. Mousavi, S.M., Shamsai, A., Naggar, M.H.E. and Khamehchian, M. (2001). A GPS-based monitoring program of land subsidence due to groundwater withdrawal in Iran. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 28(3): 452–464.
  30. Seyedan, S.M. and Kohansal, M. R. (2016). Welfare effect of excessive extraction of groundwater resources in the plain of Hamadan-Bahar. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Economic, 10(3): 129-153. (Persian)
  31. Soltani, Gh. and Saboohi, M. (2009). Economic and social impacts of groundwater overdraft: The case of Iran. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 15th Economic Research Forum (ERF) Annual Conference.
  32. Soltani, Gh. (2007). Engineering economics. Shiraz: Shiraz University Publication Center. (Persian)
  33. Taghizadeh, S. and Soltani, Gh. (2013). The impact of groundwater over-extraction on farmers (Case study: welfare of wheat producers in Fasa county). Agricultural Economics Research, 5(1): 1-22. (Persian)
  34. Tahami Pour, M., Mehrabi Boshrabadi, H. and Karbasi, A. (2005). Effect of water table reduction on social welfare producers, case study: Pistachio growers of Zarand County. Agricultural Economic and Development, 13(49): 97-115. (Persian)