بررسی و تحلیل اثرات تجارت بین‌الملل بر امنیت غذایی: مطالعة موردی گزیده ‏ای از کشورها با درآمد متوسط به بالا

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشکدة اقتصاد و توسعة کشاورزی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

2 استاد گروه اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشکدة اقتصاد و توسعة کشاورزی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشکدة کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه اردکان، یزد، ایران.

چکیده

گرسنگی، ناامنی غذایی و فقر از مهم­ترین مسائل بحرانی در برخی از کشورهاست. در میان تمامی حقوق افراد یک اجتماع در قالب نیازهای پایه‌ای خانوار، «امنیت غذایی» از مهم‌ترین نیازهای فردی است که مسئولیت تأمین آن به عهدة دولت­هاست. تجارت بین ­المللی می‏تواند ناامنی غذایی را در کشورها از طریق تسهیل دسترسی به بازارهای بزرگ‏تر کاهش دهد؛ و از این­رو، می­توان تجارت غذا را از راه­حل‌های تأمین امنیت غذایی جهان و پدیده‏ای حیاتی برشمرد. بنابراین، هدف مطالعه حاضر بررسی و تحلیل رابطه بین تجارت بین‌الملل و امنیت غذایی در گروه کشورهای با درآمد متوسط به بالا از جمله ایران طی دوره زمانی 2002 تا 2016، با استفاده از روش اقتصادسنجی پانل با اثرات تصادفی بود. نتایج مطالعه نشان داد که رابطه U شکل بین دو متغیر امنیت غذایی و تجارت بین‌الملل وجود دارد، بیانگر آنکه در کشورهای منتخب، امنیت غذایی در مراحل اولیه توسعه تجاری کاهش می‏ یابد و سپس، با فراتر رفتن آزادسازی تجارت از یک آستانه معین، افزایش خواهد یافت. بنابراین، بر اساس یافته­ های مطالعه و در راستای بهبود رابطه امنیت غذایی و تجارت بین ­الملل، پیشنهادهایی برای سیاست­گذاران ذی‏ربط ارائه شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the Effects of International Trade on Food Security (Case Study: A Selection of Countries with Middle-High-income)

نویسندگان [English]

  • F. Sakhi 1
  • safdar Hosseini 2
  • Ahmad fatahi ardakani 3
1 PhD Student in Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agricultural Economics and Development, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agricultural Economics and Development, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Ardakan, Yazd, Iran
چکیده [English]

Hunger, food insecurity and poverty is the most important critical issues in some countries. Of all the rights given to a community's basic household needs, "food security" is one of the most important individual needs that governments are responsible for providing. International trade can reduce food insecurity in countries by facilitating access to larger markets, Hence, food trade could be regarded as the solution to world food security. Thus for global food security, food trade is vital. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between international trade and food security in the group of high-middle income countries including Iran during the period of 2002–2016 using a random-effects panel econometric approach. The results show that there is a U-shaped relationship between the two variables of food security and international trade. It indicates that food security declines in the early stages of trade development and increases beyond a certain threshold. Based on the findings of the study, suggestions have been made to improve the relationship between food security and international trade that need to be considered by policy makers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Food security
  • International Trade
  • Panel regression
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