تبیین عوامل مؤثر بر تخریب منابع طبیعی با تأکید بر فقر و امنیت غذایی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 نویسنده مسئول و استادیار مؤسسه پژوهش‌های برنامه‌ریزی، اقتصاد کشاورزی و توسعه روستایی، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشجوی دکتری اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

یکی از بارزترین جنبه‌های فقر رابطۀ آشکار این پدیده با تخریب منابع طبیعی است، که به ناپایداری زیست‏ محیطی می‏انجامد. در مطالعه حاضر، رابطه فقر و تخریب منابع طبیعی در ایران در قالب الگوی تصحیح خطای برداری (VECM) در دوره زمانی 1396-1373 بررسی شد. نتایج مطالعه نشان داد که وقفه اول فقر بر تخریب منابع طبیعی اثر مثبت و معنی‌دار دارد و با افزایش یک درصدی شاخص فقر، مقدار تخریب منابع طبیعی 19/0 درصد افزایش می ‏یابد و اما، ارزش افزوده بخش کشاورزی اثر منفی بر تخریب منابع طبیعی دارد و با افزایش یک درصدی در ارزش افزوده، 20/0 درصد از منابع طبیعی کمتر استخراج خواهد شد؛ همچنین، آزادسازی قیمت حامل‌های انرژی و آزادسازی تجاری بر تخریب منابع طبیعی اثر منفی دارند؛ و البته، شاخص امنیت غذایی اثر مثبت و معنی‌دار بر تخریب منابع طبیعی دارد، به‏ گونه‏ای که به ازای هر یک درصد افزایش در شاخص امنیت غذایی، میزان تخریب منابع طبیعی 78/0 درصد افزایش خواهد یافت. افزون بر این، بر پایه نتایج پژوهش حاضر، بهره‌وری انرژی بر میزان تخریب منابع طبیعی با ضریب 21/0- اثر منفی دارد، اما این میزان معنی‌دار نیست. ضریب متغیر ECM برابر با 59/0- است که از نظر آماری، در سطح 95 درصد معنی‌دار و منطبق با نظریه بوده و نشان‌دهنده آن است که در هر دوره، 77/59 درصد از خطای عدم تعادل از بین خواهد رفت؛ و همچنین، تأمین سوخت مورد نیاز روستاییان، اعطای یارانه و تسهیلات برای استفاده از فناوری‌های نوین به ‏منظور ارتقای بهره‌وری و نیز حمایت از تولیدکنندگان و مصرف‌کنندگان به ‏صورت هدف‌دار در راستای کاهش تخریب منابع طبیعی و حفاظت از آن راهگشا خواهد بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Explanation of Factors Affecting the Natural Resources Degradation with Emphasis on Poverty and Food Security

نویسندگان [English]

  • A. KianiRad 1
  • H. Noroozi 2
1 Assistant Professor of Agricultural Planning, Economics, and Rural Development Research Institute (APERDRI), Tehran, Iran .
2 PhD Student in Agricultural Economics, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

One of the most obvious aspects of poverty is the apparent link between this phenomenon and the degradation of natural resources, which leads to environmental instability. In the present study, the relationship between poverty and natural resource degradation in Iran was investigated within the VECM model in the period 1994-2018. The study results showed that the first break of poverty had a positive and significant effect on the degradation of natural resources and a one percent increase in the poverty index would increase the amount of natural resources degradation by 0.19 percent, but the value added of agriculture had a negative effect on natural resources degradation and with a one percent increase in value added, the natural resources would be less extracted by 0.20 percent; also, energy price liberalization and trade liberalization had negative effects on the natural resources degradation while the food security index had a positive and significant effect on the natural resources degradation, so that for every one percent increase in the food security index, the rate of natural resources degradation would increase by 0.78 percent. In addition, according to the study results, energy efficiency has a negative effect on the rate of natural resources degradation with a coefficient of -0.21, but this rate is not significant. The coefficient of the ECM variable is equal to -0.59, which is statistically significant at the level of 95 percent and is in accordance with the theory and indicates that in each period, 59.77 percent of the imbalance error will disappear; also, providing the fuel needed by the rural people, providing subsidies and facilities for the use of new technologies to improve productivity as well as supporting producers and consumers in a targeted way to reduce the degradation of natural resources and protect the environment will be helpful.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Food security
  • energy efficiency
  • Natural resources degradation
  • Poverty
  • Depletion
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