بررسی الگوی انتقال قیمت و قدرت بازار در صنعت تولید قند و شکر ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه اقتصاد دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد زابل

2 دانشیار دانشکده اقتصاد و مدیریت دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

3 استاد دانشکده اقتصاد و مدیریت دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

چکیده

انتقال نامتقارن قیمت بنگاه‌های تولیدی می‌تواند دال بر وجود قدرت بازار باشد. در همین راستا، این مطالعه به کمک یک الگوی ترکیبی، به تحلیل هم‌زمان انتقال قیمت میان بازار تولید و خرده‌فروشی قند و شکر با وجود متغیر قدرت بازار پرداخت. بدین منظور از داده‌های فصلی متغیرهای مورد نیاز طی سال‌های 1392-1374 استفاده شد. در راستای هدف مطالعه، رفتار قیمت خرده‌فروشی قند و شکر در قالب یک الگوی دو رژیمی ارزیابی گردید که با ماهیت عرضه محصولاتی سازگار است که در فصول برداشت عرضه فراوان دارند. همچنین از معکوس کشش عرضه محصول به عنوان متغیر قدرت بازار استفاده شد. با استناد به رژیم محتمل‌تر (رژیم دوم)، مشخص شد که عاملان بازاریابی در سطح عمده‌فروشی تمایل دارند افزایش قیمت را در مقایسه با کاهش قیمت با شدت بیشتری به سطح خرده‌فروشی منتقل کنند. در این رژیم، انتقال نامتقارن قیمت و وجود قدرت بازار تأیید شد. در رژیم اول، قدرت بازار بسیار بیشتر بوده و با توجه به احتمال وقوع حدوداً 30 درصدی، بیشتر با فصل‏های وفور عرضه انطباق دارد که در این فصول واحدهای تولید و فرآوری قند و شکر  مبادرت به افزایش قدرت بازار و ایجاد بازار انحصاری در خرید نهاده‌ها می‌کنند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the Pattern of Price Transmission and Market Power in the Sugar Industry of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • mohamad omrani 1
  • M. Shahiki Tash 2
  • Ahmad Akbari 3
1 Assistant Professor of Economics, Islamic Azad University, Zabol Branch, Zabol, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Economics, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
3 Professor, Faculty of Economics, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
چکیده [English]

The asymmetric price transmission can be indicative of market power. In this regard, this study, with the help of a hybrid model, simultaneously analyzed the transfer of prices between the sugar and sugar market and the market, despite the changing market power. For this purpose, seasonal data of required variables during the years 1995-2013 was used. Asymmetric price transmission can indicate market power exerted by production firms. Regarding the issue a mixture model has been applied to analysis the price transmission pattern between processing and retailer markets of sugar while market power is considered as well. For this purpose, seasonal data of required variables during the years 1995-2013 was used. In this study, retailer price of sugar was examined using two regimes which have high conformity with agricultural products that are characterized by mass supply in the harvesting season. Inverse supply elasticity of output was used as market power parameter. Regarding the regime 2 that is more likely to happen, marketing agents in the wholesale market are inclined to transmit increase of prices to retailer market more significantly than decrease of prices. Asymmetric price transmission and market power were confirmed in this regime. In the first regime, market power was higher and had the probability of about 30%, mostly dependent on abundance of supply in the seasons of processing sugar, which is an attempt to increase market power and to create a monopoly in the purchase of agricultural inputs. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Price Transmission
  • Market Power
  • Production of Sugar
  1. Acharya., R. N., Kinnucan, H. W. and Caudill, S. B.  (2010).  Asymmetric farm–retail price transmission and market power: a new test. Applied Economics, 43: 4759–4768.
  2. Bakucs, L. Z. and Ferto, I. (2006). Marketing margins and price transmission on the Hungarian beef market. Food Economics, 3: 151-160.
  3. Bor,Ö., Ismihan, M. and Bayaner, A. (2014). Asymmetry in farm-retail price transmission in the Turkish fluid milk market. International Journal of New Medit, No. 2:1-8.
  4. Canan, B. and Cotterill, R. W. (2006). Strategic pricing a differentiated product oligopoly model: fluid milk in Boston. Agricultural Economics, 35: 27-33.
  5. Digal, L. N. and Ahmadi-Esfahani, F. Z. (2002). Market power analysis in the retail food industry: a survey of methods. The Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 46(4): 559–584.
  6. FAO Statistical Database., http://www.fao.org.
  7. Farajzadeh, Z. and Esmaeeli, A. (2010), Analysis of price transmission in the Pistachios world market. Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development, 71: 69-98. (Persian)
  8. Farajzadeh, Z. and Bakhshoodeh, M. (2011). Studing pistachio world market structure with emphasis on Iranian market power. Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development, 73: 125-145. (Persian)
  9. Ghadami Kouhestani, M., Nikokar, A. & Dorandish, A. (2010). The threshold pattern of price transmission in the Iranian chicken market. Seasonal of Agricultural Economy and Development, Agriculture Sciences and Industries, 24(3): 384-392. (Persian)
  10. Guillen, J. (2010). Testing for market power and functioning of the Spanish seafood market chain, IIFET 2010 Montpellier Proceedings.
  11. Jezghani, F., Moghaddasi, R.,Yazdani, S. and Mohamadinejad, A. (2011). Price transmission mechanism in the Iranian rice market. International Journal of Agricultural Science and Research, 2(4):29-36.
  12. Hosseini, S. S. & Ghahreman Zadeh, M. (2006). Asymmetrical modification and price transmission in the Iranian red meat industry. Seasonal of Agricultural Economy and Development, 53: 1-22. (Persian)
  13. Hosseini, S. S. & Nikokar, A. (2006). Asymmetrical price transmission and its effect on the market margin in the Iranian chicken industry. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2-37(1): 1-9. (Persian)
  14. Hosseini, S. S. Salami, H. & Nikokar, A. (2008). The pattern of price transmission in the Iranian chicken market. Journal of Iranian Agricultural Sciences, 2(1): 1-21. (Persian)
  15. Houck, J.P. (1977). An approach to specifying and estimating nonreversible Functions. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 59:570-572.
  16. Kilima, F.T.M. (2006). Are price changes in the world market transmitted to markets in less developed countries? a case study of sugar, Cotton, Wheat and rice in Tanzania. Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania, No. 160.
  17. Kim, H. and Ward, R. W. (2013). Price transmission across the U.S. food distribution system. Food Policy,41: 226–236.
  18. Liang, J. N. (1989). Price reaction functions and conjectural variations: an application to the breakfast cereal industry. Review of International Organization, 4(2):31-58.
  19. McLaren, A. (2013). Asymmetry in price transmission in agricultural markets. Working Paper Series, University De Geneve.
  20. Meyer, J. and Cramon-Taubadel, S. V. (2004). Asymmetric price transmission: a survey. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 55(3): 581-611.
  21. Moghaddasi, R. (2009). Price transmission in agricultural markets: an Iranian experience. American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 6 (1): 70-75.
  22. Moghaddasi, R. and Nuroozi, Q. (2010). Study of price transmission behavior in the Mazandaran meat market. Journal of Commerce Research, 56: 177-194. (Persian)
  23. Moghaddasi, R. and Rahimi, R. (2012). Investigating price transmission for milk market. Journal of Economic Sciences, 7(22): 9-26. (Persian)
  24. Nikokar, A., Husseini, S. S. & Dorandish, A. (2010). The pattern of price in the Iranian beef industry. Seasonal of Agricultural Economy and Development, Agriculture Sciences and Industries, 24(1): 23-32. (Persian)
  25. Omrani, M. and Farajzadeh, Z. (2013). Market power and its welfare impacts in market of Iranian agricultural exporting crops. Journal of Agricultural Economics Researches, 4(4): 117-138. (Persian)
  26. Peltzman, S. (2000). Prices rise faster than they fall. Journal of Political Economy,108(3):466-502.
  27. Pirooz, E. and Naderi, M. (2009). Examining of world and domestic sugar market and give guideline for improvement activity in country. Iranian Journal of Trade Studies (Quarterly), (36): 2-25. (Persian)
  28. Pishbahar, S., Ferdousi, R. & Asadollahpur, F. (2015). Investigating the price transmission in the chicken market: The use of the Markov-Switching vector auto regressions. Journal of Agricultural Economy, 9(2): 55-72. (Persian)
  29. Richards, T. J., Patterson, P. M. and Acharya, R. N. (2001). Price behavior in a dynamic oligopsony: Washington processing potatoes. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 83: 259–71.
  30. Schroeter, J. R. and Azzam, A. (1991). Marketing margins, market power, and price uncertainty. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 73: 990–9.
  31. Sexton, R. J. and Zhang, M. (1996). A model of price determination for fresh produce with application to California iceberg lettuce. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 78: 924–34.
  32. Shahikitash, M.N., Omrani, M. (2014). Price transmission between the domestic and export market of the selected agricultural products and welfare effects of the asymmetric price transmission. Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development, (61): 125-143. (Persian)
  33. Sheikhzeineddin, A. and Bakhshoodeh, M. (2008). Buyer market power of livestock and efficiency cost in meat industry: The case study of livestock killing industry in Fars province. Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development, (85): 177-211. (Persian)
  34. Statistics Center Publication. (2014). Iran Statistics. Tehran: Statistics Center Publication. p12.
  35. Wang, X. ,Weldegebriel, H.T. & Rayner, T. (2006). Price transmission, market power and returns to scale. Land economy working paper, SAC Edinburgh.
  36. Ward, R.W. (1982). Asymmetry in retail, wholesale and shipping point pricing for freshvegetables. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 62:205-212.
  37. Website of the Customs Department of the Islamic Republic of Iran. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.irica.gov.ir
  38. Wolfe, J. H. (1971). A Monte Carlo study of the sampling distribution of the likelihood ratio for mixtures of normal distributions, Tech. Bull. STB 72, US Naval Personnel and Training Research Laboratory, San Diego.
  39. Wolffram, R. (1971). Positivistic measures of aggregate supply elasticities: some new approaches-some critical notes. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 53: 356–359.
  40. Yavari, F., Ghahremanzadeh, M., Dashti, Q. and Falsafian, A. (2014). Convergence threshold and asymmetric price transmission: An application for veal market in East Azerbaijan. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 8(2): 103-119. (Persian)
  41. Yousefi, M.H. and Moghaddasi, R. (2013). Investigating the transmission of international prices to the domestic market of agricultural products (wheat, barley and rice) - Application of maximum entropy method. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 5(1): 81-99. (Persian)