برآورد قدرت بازاری و پراکندگی آن در صنایع غذایی ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 سازمان مرکزی پیام نور، تهران

2 دانشکده اقتصاد دانشگاه تهران

3 استادیار گروه اقتصاد دانشگاه مفید، تهران، ایران

4 ‌استادیار مؤسسه مطالعات و پژوهش‌های بازرگانی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

این مطالعه با هدف تعیین قدرت انحصاری 22 صنعت غذایی از 136 رشته فعالیت صنایع کارخانه‌ای ایران در سطح کدهای آیسیک چهاررقمی و بررسی جایگاه صنایع غذایی از نظر پراکندگی قدرت بازار بین 23  رشته فعالیت در سطح کدهای دو رقمی آیسیک انجام گرفت. همچنین رویکرد غیرساختاری و پارامتریک، لو و یو برای برآورد قدرت انحصاری صنایع استفاده شد. بر اساس نتایج مطالعه، 73 درصد صنایع غذایی، قدرت انحصاری بیش از 10 درصد داشتند. صنایع تولید نان و انواع نوشیدنی‌ها از بیشترین قدرت انحصاری برخوردار  بودند، در حالی که صنایعی مانند آماده‌سازی و آرد کردن غلات و حبوبات؛ کشتار دام و طیور؛ تولید فراوردهای لبنی؛ بسته‌بندی و درجه‌بندی پسته؛ تولید روغن‌های نباتی و عمل‌آوری گوشت و فرآوردهای آن، رفتاری رقابتی داشته‌اند. در مجموع، 87 درصد صنایع ایران قدرت انحصاری و رفتاری غیررقابتی دارند. همچنین صنایع به طور متوسط دارای بازدهی کاهنده نسبت به مقیاس هستند و جایگاه صنایع غذایی از نظر نابرابری قدرت بازار رتبه دوازدهم در  بین 23 صنعت با کد دو رقمی است. بنابراین، استفاده از ظرفیت‌های بالقوه  در برخی از صنایع مانند تولید آرد، با آزادسازی صادرات محصولات - به شرط نبود یارانه مواد اولیه- مفید خواهد بود. همچنین در خصوص صنایع کشتار دام و طیور این سیاست راهگشاست. به منظور افزایش رقابت در سایر صنایع، یکی از راهکارها کاهش و منطقی نمودن تعرفه‌های وارداتی با هدف بهبود رقابت در تولید این محصولات است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Estimation of Market Power and Its Distribution in the Food Industry in Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farhad Khodadad kashi 1
  • Jafar Ebadi 2
  • syeyd zia aldyn kiaalhoseyni 3
  • khalil heidary 4
1 Professor of Economics, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor of Economics, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor of Economics, Mofid University, Tehran, Iran
4 Assistant Professor of Economics, Institute for Trade Studies and Research, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

This article determine the monopoly power of 22 food industries among 136 manufacturing industries at 4 digit ISIC level, and also determine the position of food industry in terms of market power dispersion among 23 fields in industry at 2 digit ISIC level. The unstructured and parametric approach of Lu and Yu was used to estimate the monopoly power of industry. According to the results, the mark-up of 73 percent of food industries is more than 10 percent. Industrial production of bread and a variety of beverages are the largest monopoly power, while industries such as production, processing and preserving of meat and meat products; manufacture of vegetable and animal oils and fats; manufacture of dairy products; manufacture of grain mill products  show a competitive behavior. On the whole, 87 percent of the Iranian industries have monopoly power and uncompetitive behavior. Meanwhile, the industries have the decreasing average of returns to scale and the position of food industry in terms of inequality rank of market power dispersion, is 12 among 23 industries with 2-digit level. Therefore, using the potential capacity of some industries such as flour production can be helpful, with liberalization the exports of their products while no subsidization is provided for the raw material. In order to increase the competitive nature of the other industries, a strategy can be; reducing and rationalizing the import tariffs with the aim of improving competition.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Competition
  • Monopoly Power
  • Markup
  • Market Power Dispersion
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